# Solar PV course content in detail :

#### Chapter 1: Basics of Photovoltaics

The chapter explains about the basics and fundamentals of photovoltaics which includes 4 segments.

#### Chapter 1 : Segment 1 : World Energy Scenario

Various sources of energy – types of renewable & non renewable energy – market scenario of solar energy in India and other countries – milestones attained & targets set for developing solar power generation in India and review of global energy scenario.

#### Chapter 1 : Segment 2 : Solar Energy Basics

Types of reaction inside the sun – photon energy calculation – solar constant value – electromagnetic wavelength and its types – visible spectrum and earth’s energy budget.

#### Chapter 1 : Segment 3 : Radiation Study

Types of solar radiation – Rayleigh scattering & mie scattering – albedo values of various surfaces – uses of meteorological instruments – solar irradiance map – solar resources in India.

#### Chapter 1 : Segment 4 : Basics of Sun Direction & Angles

Solar altitude angle & hour angle – Equation of time – Solar azimuth angle & zenith angle – Air mass – Impact of solar radiation at earth’s surface.

#### Chapter 2: Basics of electromagnetic spectrums & shadow analysis

The chapter explains about the physics of photovoltaic generation which includes 5 segments.

#### Chapter 2 : Segment 1 : Basics of shadow effects and hot spot effects

Shadow effects on panel – soft shading and hard shading – effects of hot spot on solar panels – bypass diodes in shaded cells.

#### Chapter 2 : Segment 2 : Sun path diagram

Tilt angle and orientation for different seasons – geographic co-ordinates of a location – understanding of proper orientation of the panel – Google earth software – sun path chart calculations for a location – instruments used for measuring sun path chart.

#### Chapter 2 : Segment 3 : Physics of PV generation

Difference between conductors, semiconductors & insulators – Band gap energy for different materials – crystalline structure of silicon – intrinsic & extrinsic silicon – Doping – N-type and P-Type semiconductors – Process of generation of current in solar cell.

#### Chapter 2 : Segment 4 : How PV cell works?

Structure of the solar cell – Open circuit voltage, short circuit current and fill factor – calculation of efficiency of solar cell – effects of parasitic resistances in solar cells – Environmental effects on solar cell – reduction of optical & recombination losses.

#### Chapter 2 : Segment 5 : Basics of electrical

Introduction to electricity – process of power generation & power consumption – electrical terms & their units of measurement – calculation of voltage, current and resistance using ohm’s law – resistors color code and calculation of resistivity – classification of circuits – calculation of voltage, current & resistance in series & parallel circuits using ohm’s law.

#### Chapter 3 : Design of Solar Power Systems

The chapter covers the design aspects of solar power plants and components selection which includes 6 segments.

#### Chapter 3 : Segment 1 : Grid tied solar PV systems

Working of grid tied PV systems – criteria for designing tied PV systems – conditions affecting PV array output – De-rating factors of PV module – calculation of DC & AC system losses – calculation of energy losses – Inverter sizing calculations & panel arrangements – calculation of energy yield & performance ratio.

#### Chapter 3 : Segment 2 : Net metering

Concept of net meter – import & export concepts in net meter – advantages of net metering – technical feasibility for applying net meter – working of net meter.

#### Chapter 3 : Segment 3 : Designing of standalone PV systems

Working of standalone PV system – site survey and design considerations – load assessment – preparation of load estimation worksheet – determination of system voltage – depth of discharge, autonomy & battery sizing calculations – PV sizing, power factor and inverter sizing calculations – energy yield & performance of standalone PV systems.

#### Chapter 3 : Segment 4 : Inverters

Working of string, central & micro inverters – advantages & disadvantages of string, central and micro inverters – anti islanding protection in grid tied inverters.

#### Chapter 3 : Segment 5 : Mounting Structures

Factors to be considered while selecting the mounting options – types of roof – fixed mounting & tracking structures – ballast and ground mounting – single and dual axis tracker – advantages & disadvantages of different types of mounting structures.

#### Chapter 3 : Segment 6 : System wiring & protection

Cables & conduits – solid & stranded cables – cable types & insulating material – DC & AC wiring system – calculation of ampacity – calculation of voltage drop – conductivity & resistivity of different materials – concept of cable glands, lugs & junction bus.

#### Chapter 4 : Earthing (Grounding)

Objectives & qualities of good earthing – effects of electric shock on the human body – types of short circuit – equipment & system earthing – permissible values of earth resistance – measurement of soil resistivity using earth tester – methods of conventional earthing – calculation of earth resistance using IS 3040 – calculation of earth resistance using BS 7430 – maintenance free earthing – measurement of earth resistance using four point method – how to use an auger – difference between grounding & bonding – grounding & bonding in PV modules & inverters.

#### Chapter 5 : Civil construction & Lightning protection

Civil work in rooftop and utility projects – major steps in civil construction activities – load bearing capacities of different types of soil – soil strength classification for foundations – types of PV foundations – working of a lightning protection system – lightning rod and its types – general design rules.

#### Chapter 6 : Testing & commissioning of solar power plants

Review of IEC 62446 standard – documentation requirements – open circuit voltage & short circuit measurements using multimeter – polarity & continuity test – testing of anti islanding protection in inverters – emergency shutdown procedure – mandatory signage.

#### Chapter 7 : Operation & Maintenance of solar PV plants

Check list of tasks for maintenance – predictive, preventive & corrective maintenance – maintenance schedule – module, inverter & battery maintenance procedures – cables & conduit inspection – How to use mulitmeter – examples of failures – trouble shooting steps.

#### Chapter 8 : Personal Protective Equipment

OSHA Safety standards – responsibilities of an employer – types of PPE – elimination & control of potential hazards – do’s & don’ts while using PPE – precautions while working at height.

#### Chapter 9 : Virtual onsite training

A video has been taken at site to explain the installation of solar PV system on the field. The topics covered are feasibility study – shadow analysis & estimation of maximum sunshine hours – sun path chart – a handmade tool to draw the sun path chart – ballast structure mounting – elevated structure mounting – DCDB fixing – panel connections – cable routing – inverter fixing – inverter connection – signage – earthing – bonding – digging of earth pit – testing – anti islanding – commissioning of the system.